Kumiss called fermented milk drink, traditionally made from mare's milk, by its fermentation. For him
manufacture two kinds of fermentation: lactic acid and alcohol using yeast, Bulgarian and acidophilus lactic acid bacillus. The drink has a whitish, it is peculiar or foam. Kumys refreshing taste, sweet and sour. It is often used for medicinal purposes.
Manufacturing technology allows you to cook different mare fortress. In some types of beverage alcohol content is so high that it can cause intoxication, and lead the man to use it in the excitement-intoxicated state. For a small proportion of alcohol in a drink koumiss has a calming and relaxing effect, until sleepiness.
Kumiss prepared even the nomadic tribes of Mongolia and Central Asia. It is known that the drink existed in the Eneolithic, ie more than 5000 years ago. Proof of this are found in the valley Susamyr, where, besides the evidence of domestication of horses, the researchers found bags of goat skin with traces of horse milk. It is possible that it was fermented in the same way as the mare.
The first written mention of the drink was written by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, who lived in the 5th century. BC. In describing the life of the Scythians, he tells about their favorite drink, which is made from fermented mare's milk by churning it in wooden tubs. Also, the historian noted that the Scythians so carefully guarded secret of the beverage that dazzled each slave, found out about the process of preparing a beverage.
Later mention of koumiss found in ancient chronicles (eg Hypatian) and in the notes of foreign missionaries and travelers. Thus, in the 13th century. French monk Guillaume de Rubruk, describing his journey to the "Tatars" describes in detail not only the effect of koumiss and taste, but also a way to cook it. Description somewhat distorted, but, in general, close to the truth.
Despite the fact that initially only used for kumys mare's milk, the Kalmyk nomads began to use the camel and cow's milk. Bashkirs still use a drink, traditional recipes, and the Turkmens and Kazakhs prefer to kumys camel milk.
Incidentally, the mare is the only intoxicating drinks authorized for Muslims.
The composition and caloric kumys
While the form of fermentation, which is used to prepare koumiss, milk protein becomes digestible and milk sugars are converted to ethanol, lactic acid, carbon dioxide and aromatics. With this composition mare gets high nutritional, easily digestible, has a pleasant taste and delicate flavor.
Traditionally, the alcohol content of koumiss is between 0 and 2% to 3% ethanol. Strong koumiss prepared from mare milk, and contains up to 4, 5% alcohol. Kazakh cooking method involves the creation of a drink, a fortress which reaches 40%.
The drink contains a number of vitamins, including - thiamine, riboflavin, folic and pantothenic acid, biotin and vitamin B12, and C.
Calorie kumys the traditional manufacturing (from mare's milk) is 50 kcal per 100 g
Useful properties kumys
kumys marked by more than a thousand years ago, truly great. This drink is officially used, and later in the Soviet period, as a remedy in sanatoriums of the Volga region, Buryatia, Bashkortostan and Kyrgyzstan, and the treatment process called "kumysoterapiya." Now, unfortunately, the number of medical institutions, which is practiced kumysoterapiya greatly reduced. To date, only two are functioning actively resort located in Bashkiria.
The antibiotic substances contained in koumiss, do drink effective antimicrobial agent, increase the body's resistance to infectious diseases.
High nutritional value and ability to stimulate biological processes occurring in the body - the properties of koumiss, for which he also appreciated. Along with this, the drink is widely used to fill the shortage of vitamins and energy. It gives the body vitality, strength, stimulates the nervous system and helps to normalize metabolic processes in the body.
The content of the beverage alcohol, lactic acid and carbon dioxide stimulates the appetite and improves digestion.
Treatment kumis appointed in some forms of tuberculosis, anemia and to restore normal intestinal microflora.
Kumys favor will surely appreciate those who suffer from the hangover. The drink is not only perfectly eliminates the causes of this condition, but also quenches thirst and gives strength.
Known benefits kumys and stomach: the regular use of a drink has a positive effect on the secretory activity of the digestive system, helps with gastric ulcer and dysentery.
According to some useful properties kumys allow you to use it as a means to help slow the progression of neoplastic processes in the body.
Raising the level of hemoglobin, leukocyte improvement, prevention of cardiovascular diseases - here's a small list of properties attributed to this drink.
It is also noteworthy that the application is not limited kumys age. It is equally useful for children and adults. It is not recommended to use it only for people with individual intolerance to the product, as well as those who suffer from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute form.