Margarine - a cheap substitute for natural butter, similar to it in chemical composition, texture, smell and taste.
It was created in France chemist Hippolyte Inter-Mourier.
Production and composition of margarine
Currently produces sandwich and sandwich bar-shaped soft margarine, margarine improved quality and table margarine. Among consumers the most popular sandwich margarines slightly yellow.
In the production of this food product using auxiliary and main raw material. As a main raw material is a fatty substrate. From the physico-chemical characteristics and rheological characteristics of the foundations largely depends on the quality of the finished product.
The hardness, melting point and the concentration of the solid phase - the most important indicators of properties of margarine. Accumulation odnokislotnyh raznoplavkih glycerides gives this product softness and high melting - increased hardness.
As a fat base margarine often use a variety of refined sunflower oil without taste and smell. In the US, the main raw material for the production of this product is soybean oil, and in Western Europe - rapeseed.
In the manufacture of low calorie margarine widely used palmkernel, coconut and palm oils. When using these oils is obtained the product more pliable. In Germany, some varieties of margarine are added pork fat (lard).
Squared hard margarine by 80% consists of hydrogenated fat and 20% - from a liquid fat (often vegetable oil). Liquid margarines 40-50% consists of a liquid fat.
The composition of margarine as accessory components typically include milk, butter, salt, sugar, preservatives, emulsifiers, aromatics and flavors (vanillin, cocoa powder, coffee extract). Auxiliary components form a water-milk-based products.
Sol composed margarine gives it a salty taste, and reduces spatter when used for frying foods.
In addition to the dairy margarine, now produce margarine, which included no milk. However, in some species such product soured cream is added, sodium caseinate.
As preservatives in the production of margarine in our country is allowed to use sorbic, citric and benzoic acids. In the Netherlands and Denmark use sorbic acid and potassium sorbate. In the United Kingdom and the United States is used as sorbic and benzoic acid, and their sodium and potassium salts. The water-based product to increase microbiological resistance introduced lactic and citric acid. Citric acid has a synergistic effect on the oxidizing agents and preservatives.
To increase the stability of solid fat oxidation in the margarine include oxidizing agents - butylhydroxyanisole and butylhydroxytoluene concentrations of 0, 02%. They are usually added in admixture with tocopherol, lecithin and citric acid.
Emulsifiers help retain moisture, and also possess anti-spattering properties and provide resistance of the product during storage.
Currently produces margarine chocolate (brown), pink, yellow and other colors.
Nutritional value and calorie margarine
For calorie margarine slightly inferior butter. Calorie margarine is 745 kcal per 100 g
One hundred grams of this product contained 16 g of water, 5, 0, 5 g of ashes, 3 mg of choline, 25 mg of vitamin E, 0, 03 mg of vitamin B2, 0, 02 mg of vitamin A, 400 mg of vitamin PP.
Furthermore, in the margarine includes 7 ug phosphorus 10 mg potassium, 187 mg sodium, 1 mg of magnesium and 11 mg of calcium.
All the nutrients added to this product artificially.
Energy value of margarine is higher than that of butter, so this product is considered a good source of fat. In addition, it contains a number of trace elements and vitamins.
margarine is its plant origin. That is why it does not contain cholesterol. Although sometimes in the product composition is added to animal fats to improve its palatability.
Use margarine is directly dependent on the quality of raw material from which it is produced.
The harm of margarine
In scientific circles and the press often discusses the dangers of margarine.
The product consists of trans fatty acids (TIZHK) and the remnants of different chemicals. That is why considerable harm margarine can cause adult and child's body.
Human digestive enzymes can not process a part of margarine artificial ingredients. That is why regular use TIZHK even in small quantities leads to metabolic disorders, to a decrease in immunity, and increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In addition, trans fats impair the quality of breast milk, and lead to the birth of babies with low birth weight.
In men, regular and long term use leads to a deterioration in margarine sperm quality, and reduces the production of testosterone and increases the risk of infertility.
Margarine should be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of from 0 to 4 ° C - six weeks at a temperature of -10 to -20 ° C - about two months. The shelf life of the product also depends on the type of packaging.